ผู้เขียน หัวข้อ: Serial Killer Definition  (อ่าน 75 ครั้ง)

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กุมภาพันธ์ 27, 2017, 10:49:53 PM
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Serial Killer Definition
Like certain other terms—obscenity, for example—serial killing is surprisingly tricky to define. Part of the problem is that police definitions tend to differ from popular conceptions. According to some experts, a serial killer is any murderer who commits more than one random slaying with a break between the crimes. There is certainly some validity to this viewpoint. If (for example) Ted Bundy had been caught after committing only a couple of atrocities, he wouldn’t have gained worldwide notoriety—but he still would have been what he was: a demented personality capable of the most depraved acts of violence. Still, it’s hard to think of someone as a serial killer unless he’s killed a whole string of victims.

How many victims constitute a “string”? Again, it’s hard to be precise. The most infamous serial killers—Bundy, Gacy, Dahmer, etc.—are the ones responsible for double-digit murders. Most experts seem to agree, however, that to qualify as a serial killer, an individual has to slay a minimum of three unrelated victims.
The notion of a string implies something else besides sheer number. A serial killer must perpetrate a number of random killings with an emotional “cooling-off” period between each crime. This hiatus—which can last anywhere from hours to years—is what distinguishes the serial killer from the Mass Murderer, the homicidal nut who erupts in an explosion of insane violence, killing a whole group of people all at once. Thus, the official FBI definition of serial homicide is “three or more separate events with an emotional cooling-off period between homicides, each murder taking place at a different location.”
There are several problems with this definition, however. For one thing, not all serial killers commit their murders in different locations. The nearly three dozen victims of John Wayne Gacy, for example, all met their horrible deaths in the basement of his suburban ranch house. And there are murderers who commit three or more separate homicides over extended periods of time who aren’t serial killers: mob hitmen, for example.
What distinguishes a professional hitman from a serial killer, however, is that one kills for money—it’s his job—while the other kills purely for depraved pleasure. A hitman may enjoy his work, but murder isn’t his primary source of sexual gratification. The situation is different with psychos like Gacy, who reach the heights of ecstasy while perpetrating their atrocities. According to many experts, in other words, true serial killer always involves an element of unspeakable sexual Sadism.

Taking these issues into account, the National Institute of Justice offers a definition we find more useful than the FBI’s: “A series of two or more murders, committed as separate events, usually but not always committed by one offender acting alone. The crimes may occur over a period of time ranging from hours to years. Quite often the motive is psychological, and the offender’s behavior and the physical evidence observed at the crime scenes will reflect sadistic, sexual overtones.”

กุมภาพันธ์ 27, 2017, 10:51:44 PM
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 10 GREATEST VIETNAM WAR FILMS
From Russian roulette to rogue Colonels, psychedelic drugs to shot-down pilots… History Of War has spent the past month watching every movie about the Vietnam War, and here we name the best…

1. APOCALYPSE NOW
Director Francis Ford Coppola, 1979
Famous almost as much for the trouble Francis Ford Coppola had in making it as for the quality of the film itself (check out the “making of” documentary, Hearts Of Darkness: A Filmmaker’s Apocalypse, which details how Marlon Brando turned up on the set overweight and Martin Sheen suffered a heart attack during filming), the double Oscar-winning Apocalypse Now charts Sheen’s Special Operations officer Benjamin Willard on his journey along the Nung River, after he’s been commissioned to kill a rogue Colonel, Walter Kurtz (Brando). Tensions ride high on the boat, with the drugaddled crew blaming Willard for placing them in constant peril from Viet Cong attack. The ending is part of cinematic history…

2. PLATOON
Director Oliver Stone, 1986
Starring Charlie Sheen, Willem Dafoe and Tom Berenger, Platoon was the first of Oliver Stone’s three movies inspired by his time serving as an infantryman during the Vietnam War (it’s believed that he wrote the screenplay in response to the vision of war depicted in John Wayne’s 1968 film The Green Berets). It follows Bravo Company, 25th Infantry Division as they fight near the Cambodian border, and features several memorable and harrowing scenes – not least the iconic moment when Dafoe’s character falls to his knees amid a hail of gunfire and the strains of Barber’s Adagio For Strings. It’s the palpable tension of junglebased warfare that makes Platoon one of the best war films of all time, and it rightly received Academy Awards for Best Picture and Best Director.

3. FULL METAL JACKET
Director Stanley Kubrick, 1987
Kicking off on Parris Island, South Carolina, Full Metal Jacket charts the experiences of a group of Marine Corps recruits as they endure the rigours of boot camp under the watchful eye of nightmarish drill instructor Gunnery Sergeant Hartman (played with terrifying menace by veteran actor R Lee Ermey). Not all of them make it through… The film then catapults us into the thick of the Vietnam War itself, where one of those recruits – Joker, played by Matthew Modine – has been deployed as a military journalist. After his base is attacked by the North Vietnamese at the start of the Tet Offensive, Joker joins up with a fellow graduate of Parris Island to take part in the Battle of Hu?. Hard-hitting and brutal, Full Metal Jacket won an Oscar for Best Adapted Screenplay and goes down as one of Stanley Kubrick’s greatest cinematic achievements.

4. THE DEER HUNTER
Director Michael Cimino, 1978
Michael Cimino’s masterpiece is a deeply affecting tale in three parts – the first played out in the US, the second in Vietnam and the third in a combination of the two. It tells the story of a close-knit group of Russian-American steel workers who embark on a final deer hunt prior to leaving to fight in the war. Considered controversial at the time, the film is best-known for its initial Russian roulette scene, where characters played by Robert De Niro and Christopher Walken are subjected to psychological torture by their North Vietnamese captors. The Deer Hunter is a tale of friendship, regret and madness, powerfully played by a cast that also includes Meryl Streep and John Cazale.

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มีนาคม 12, 2017, 12:34:20 AM
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Urban Legend - Fan Death

A belief rampant in South Korea—supported only by anecdotal evidence, rumors, and word-of-mouth stories (some circulated by e-mail)—holds that sleeping in a room with windows closed and an electric fan running will cause death. The notion of Fan Death continues among immigrant South Koreans, as a 2008 article in the Toronto Star demonstrated. An instructor in an English as a Second Language class (ESL) encountered it in this way, while conducting her class during the winter in a sweltering classroom in an older building at the University of New Brunswick:

“We couldn’t open the windows because it was freezing rain,” she said. So I told the class, “Tomorrow we’ll have to remember to bring a fan.” Her comment upset a Korean student, immediately distressed at the prospect of an electric fan running in a room with closed windows. “The student told us that if you are in a sealed room with an electric fan, it will lower your body emperature and you will die,” [the instructor] said. “It was so weird to see someone so convinced of something that everyone else in the room thought was so ludicrous. Another person said she slept with the fan on all the time and (the upset student) said, ‘Well, you are very lucky to be alive.’ ”

Other explanations of the supposed danger of Fan Death are that the moving air causes a body to lose water and leads to hypothermia, that a fan causes a vortex that sucks oxygen from the room; that the fan chops up oxygen molecules, rendering the air unbreathable; and that the fan uses up oxygen, leaving a fatal level of carbon dioxide. Fan Death hysteria is further encouraged in South Korea by reports in the media and even by government statistics showing supposed fatalities caused by sleeping with a fan running. Electric fans sold in South Korea are equipped with timer switches.

see more urban and myth legend at http://www.maxgax.com

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มีนาคม 18, 2017, 11:52:21 PM
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Space flight alters DNA

Scott Kelly’s historic 340-day mission
aboard the International Space Station had
an unexpected effect on his DNA, reports
CNN.com. In the year since his return,
NASA has been investigating how the
astronaut’s time beyond Earth’s protective
magnetic field affected his mind and body,
using his twin brother, Mark, a retired
astronaut, as a point of comparison. In a
surprising discovery, preliminary results
from the Twins Study have suggested that
Kelly’s telomeres—caps at the ends of
chromosomes that help protect DNA from
damage—grew longer during the mission.
Telomeres typically get shorter as people
age, a process that can be accelerated by
poor diet, stress, and lack of exercise.
Scientists aren’t sure why Kelly’s telomeres
lengthened but speculate that his enhanced
exercise regimen and reduced caloric intake
may have played a part. The Twins Study
also found that Kelly’s cognitive speed and
accuracy slowed, but only slightly—a boost
to NASA’s hopes for a crewed mission to
Mars. John Charles, the space agency’s chief
scientist, says the results are “reassuring,”
as they suggest “a year in space is not significantly
more stressful than six months.”

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มีนาคม 18, 2017, 11:56:18 PM
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Five ways to repurpose a yoga mat

????????As a mudroom throw: Keeping your
entrance clean just got easier. A yoga mat—
used as is or cut in half—can line a closet
floor or just catch muddy boots near your
busiest entrance.
????????As a bulletin board: Grab an old picture
frame, cut the mat to fit, and hang it in a
kid’s room or workshop. Just make sure to
clean the mat first with mild soap.

As insulation: Gaps around pipes or at
windows and doors can let in a lot of cold
air. Cut the mat into strips and plug up
those cracks.

As furniture pads: Make custom-trimmed
pads and place them under the feet of your
sofa and chairs to keep them from scratching
wooden floors.

As a jar opener: Cut a 5-inch square out
of the mat, clean it well, and stash it in a
kitchen drawer. You’ll be happy to have it
the next time a jar top puts up a fight.
Source: Woman’s Day

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มีนาคม 19, 2017, 12:05:47 AM
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5 FACTS ABOUT The Nice Guys

A mismatched pair of private eyes investigates the apparent suicide of a porn star in 1970s Los Angeles.

1. In the elevator scene, the same music plays in the background as in the elevator scene in The Blues Brothers (1980).
2. Russell Crowe and Ryan Gosling were both child actors who dropped out of high school to pursue their careers, and never had formal training in acting.
3. Shane Black has also directed Lethal Weapon, Iron Man 3, and Kiss Kiss Bang Bang.
4. Similarly to the studio’s marketing campaign for Inherent Vice (2014), Warner Bros. released a 70s-style trailer, complete with Betamax artifacts, an optical soundtrack audio crackle, and an “introducing” credit for
Kim Basinger.
5. Jack Kilmer – who plays the character of Chet - is the son of Val Kilmer. Shane Black directed Val in Kiss Kiss Bang Bang (2005).

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มีนาคม 25, 2017, 02:02:31 AM
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10 New discover around the world
1. Speedy gene editing is being used in humans for the first time
CRISPR is a ground-breaking form of gene editing, and there are hopes that it could be used to help fight cancer. The procedure is being trialled in both China and the US, and aims to alter immune cells so that they are able to recognise cancer. A method is also being devised to shut off the CRISPR system once it’s done its job so it shouldn’t make any extra, unwanted genetic alterations.

2. The Earth’s core has its own jet stream
Satellites from the European Space Agency (ESA) have discovered a ‘jet stream’ deep inside the Earth. Lying 3,000 kilometres below the surface of Alaska and Siberia, the stream carries liquid metal half way around the planet at a speed of 40 kilometres a year. The 420-kilometre wide stream was found by three Swarm satellites during an ESA study on the Earth’s magnetic field.

3. Salamanders go the extra mile to find a mate
Small-mouthed salamanders travel almost nine kilometres on average in order to reproduce, risking death and dehydration. Scientists tested the amphibian’s endurance on small treadmills and found that smallmouthed salamanders were able to last four-times longer than those of a closely related group, which use cloning to reproduce. Some managed to walk on the treadmill for two hours, an impressive show of stamina similar to a human jogging 120 kilometres.

4. Next-gen air-con could beam heat into space
Radioactive cooling is an extremely efficient version of air conditioning. By using a thermal emitter, physicists radiated heat out from Earth and into space. The emitter was placed in a vacuum chamber and directed at a clear sky. After 30 minutes, the emitter temperature fell by 40 degrees Celsius. This method could be used in the future to help chill medicines

5. Monkeys would be able to talk if their brain structure was different
Research has found that macaques have vocal tracts capable of speech. X-rays of a macaque eating and yawning showed they have the anatomy to make vowel sounds but lack the brainpower to do so.

6. Moon colonists could live in lava tubes
Below the Moon’s surface lie huge caverns formed by dried up molten rock from ancient volcanoes. Up to five kilometres in diameter, these subterranean cavities could be used to house future colonies. The tubes were spotted after small variations in the Moon’s gravitational pull were noticed, and if colonised, could protect potential settlers from radiation, harsh temperatures and meteor strikes.

7. The brain actively filters out background noise
Known as the ‘cocktail party effect’, the brain uses selective hearing to concentrate on one conversation.
Auditory tests using electrodes measured the difference in brain activity when exposed to incomprehensible speech followed by clear conversation.

8. Ants are intelligent enough to use tools
Hungarian scientists supplied ants with honey and water and a range of tools in which to carry them back to their nest. After experimenting with each tool, the ants learned to use sponges and paper to best soak up the liquid and transport it home.

9. Time spent outside is good for your eyes
Recent reports suggest rising rates of nearsightedness in children are down to too much time being spent indoors. By concentrating on brightly lit close-up objects like ebooks and smartphones, children’s eyes don’t have the opportunity to focus on distant objects, possibly making the onset of myopia more rapid. Experts believe this can be effectively combated by spending more time outdoors.

10. Killifish have adapted to survive toxic pollution levels
A species of fish has managed to withstand water contaminated with industrial waste. Atlantic killifish cells mutated until the correct genetic combination effectively protected cells from the toxins. The fish subsequently became up to 8,000 times more resistant to the harmful substances. The killifish’s ability to quickly change its genes was the key to so many being able to survive.

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มีนาคม 25, 2017, 02:02:53 AM
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TOP 10 EXTREME ANIMAL SURVIVORS
From scorching deserts to frozen ice caps, dizzying mountains and deep sea trenches, these animals have found ways to survive in the deadliest environments on Earth
source Matt Ayres

1. Camel
Where water is rare, camels thrive Ask people what camels store in their humps, and many will tell you that it’s water. But contrary to the common myth, the protrusions on camels’ backs have nothing to do with keeping these gangly mammals hydrated. Camel humps are simply stores of fat, which they use to fuel
their bodies when food is scarce. As for getting enough water, camels call upon a wealth of impressive adaptations to keep their bodies from drying out in the arid desert. Unlike humans, camels barely sweat at all – their thick coats help to insulate their bodies in the scorching sun, so they can withstand temperatures up to 49 degrees Celsius (120 degrees Fahrenheit) without losing excessive water through their sweat glands. And while other mammals expel moisture in their breath, the camel’s nostrils have evolved to trap water vapour and reabsorb it into the body. When they do get a chance to drink, camels really go for it – an average-sized, 600-kilogram (1,300 pound) camel can consume 200 litres in around three minutes. Other mammals might rupture their blood cells by drinking so much, but the camel’s unusual oval-shaped blood cells mean they’re capable of withstanding extreme variations in water content.

2. Rat
Never underestimate the common rat Whether you love or loathe rats, there’s no denying their phenomenal survival skills. These rodents are made of tough stuff: they’ve been known to survive getting flushed down the toilet and falling from heights equivalent to fi ve stories. Rats can also survive the nuclear fallout from atomic bombs, as witnessed in roof rats on the nuclear testing ground of Enewetak Atoll. The rat’s anatomy seems designed to inhabit almost any environment – it is able to swim in open ocean, climb vertical walls, leap several times its body length, and bite through thick concrete or metal to find a safe place to live.

It’s therefore no surprise that humans find it difficult to keep rats out of their homes. The cunning critters might scale your walls and sneak through cracks in the roof, gnaw through narrow holes in your brickwork or arrive in your toilet bowl by swimming through sewage pipes. But before you begin your anti-rat crusade, consider that these rodents are also some of the most intelligent and affectionate animals around. Pet rats love to play with their owners – like dogs, they can learn their names and be taught tricks.
African giant pouched rats have even been trained to sniff out human hazards, from
land mines to tuberculosis

3. Gannet
Seabirds that survive terrifying dive bombs While the term ‘gannet’ often refers to someone who scoffs
an excessive amount of food in a short amount of time, these mighty sea birds are more than mere gluttons. As the UK’s largest sea bird, it’s true that gannets are capable of eating large quantities of fish. However, it’s the method they use to catch their prey that means they should be considered among nature’s most extreme survivors.

Gannets hunt by turning their bodies into sleek, seafaring missiles – once they reach an altitude of 30 metres (98 feet), the birds angle their bodies downward and dart towards the water at terrific speed, reaching 97 kilometres (60 miles) per hour before they hit the surface. While most birds would be injured by the impact of such a daring dive, gannets’ faces and chests are equipped with air sacs that cushion their entry. The extra momentum allows them to pursue their prey into deeper water than most birds.

4. Guanaco
Llama-like masters of mountaineering Along with llamas and alpacas, guanacos are related to camels. They can therefore survive for long periods without water. In fact, guanacos living in the Atacama Desert, Chile, rarely drink at all, getting all the moisture they need by consuming water absorbent plants such as cacti
and lichens. But it’s not just a lack of water that guanacos have to worry about. These mammals are
frequently found in the steep, mountainous regions of South America, at breathtaking altitudes reaching up to 4,000 metres (13,100 feet) above sea level. In order to traverse these treacherous cliffs and sheer slopes, guanacos have broad, two-toed feet, which provide them with excellent balance.

Oxygen levels are dangerously low in this lofty environment, so the guanaco has adapted to make the most of the available air particles. Its blood is rich in red blood cells, containing four-times the number found in human blood. A single teaspoon of guanaco blood contains approximately 68 billion red blood cells, each
packed with haemoglobin that helps to carry oxygen around the animal’s body. Life in the mountains can be bitterly cold, so the guanaco’s shaggy coat is another essential tool, preventing rain from chilling their skin.

5. Cockroach
Nuclear apocalypse? No problem for cockroaches Tough, adaptable and super resilient, cockroaches are among the most impressive survivors of the insect world. Tests have shown that these much-maligned bugs are capable of surviving powerful radioactive rays, meaning that in the event of a worldwide nuclear war, cockroaches could potentially outlive humans.

Another reason for the cockroach’s hardy reputation is the species’ ability to quickly adjust its instincts in response to environmental factors. For example, some populations of cockroaches have learned to avoid sugary bait, which is commonly mixed with poison to exterminate roach nests.

An aversion to sweet tastes has since passed through cockroach generations, eff ectively leading the insects to evolve in a matter of years and thus increasing their chances of survival. Perhaps most amazingly of all, cockroaches can live for weeks without a head. Cockroaches can continue scuttling
around long a  er being decapitated, breathing through spiracles in their bodies. However, without a head they are unable to eat, so they eventually die of starvation.

6. Dung beetle
These industrious insects dine on dung
Being a true survivor means taking advantage of whatever food is available. Insects are particularly unfussy when it comes to what they eat – one species has become famous for indulging in the most rancid meal imaginable.

Dung beetles are coprophagous animals, meaning that they feast on faeces. In fact, they gorge on the stuff, doing everything they can to get their segmented legs on a fresh portion. Some roll the dung into balls and push them back to their burrows; others bury it where they can find it later for a more immediate meal, or simply live in piles of manure to avoid the strenuous task of hauling it around with them.

Dung rolling is hard – some scarab species are capable of pushing balls over 1,000-times their weight. This makes them the strongest animal on Earth in comparison to body weight. Imagine tugging six double-decker buses on your own, and you’ll get an idea of their strength.

7. Polar bear
Arctic survivors that embrace the cold
The Arctic is one of Earth’s most famously hostile environments, so it’s fitting that its most famous inhabitant is an animal built for survival. Polar bears are the biggest bears in the world, and the only ones capable of surviving in the Arctic’s icy climes. Temperatures here can drop to -50 degrees Celsius
(-58 degrees Fahrenheit) in winter.

To cope with such frosty weather, the polar bear is equipped with two layers of fur: a thick thermal undercoat of dense hair, and an outer coat of longer guard hairs to prevent ice and water from reaching their skin. Beneath their coats, polar bears have a thick layer of body fat, which serves as extra
insulation and an energy reserve for long periods without food. This means polar bears are very good at fasting – they can survive for an incredible ten months without food.

Despite their survival skills, climate change remains a constant threat; polar bears are classified as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List.

8. Emperor penguin
These blubbery birds team up to tackle life in Antarctica Emperor penguins rule the vast wilderness of Antarctica. Like other birds, penguins have densely packed feathers to keep them warm. However, the best defence emperor penguins have against the cold is a thick layer of fat under their skin.

This is particularly useful when braving the icy water. While other sea birds can only remain submerged for short periods, emperor penguins can stay in the bitterly cold Antarctic water for 20 minutes. They can also dive deeper than any other bird, reaching depths of 565 metres (1,850 feet).

There’s safety in numbers, as well as warmth. With little shelter from the elements, these penguins huddle together in their thousands to conserve heat. This technique is vital in the middle of winter, as the males
are left to incubate their eggs through snowstorms and subzero temperatures. Without huddling, a single emperor penguin would burn through twice the amount of body fat to stay warm.

9. Wood frog
Unassuming amphibians who freeze themselves to survive winter Frogs aren’t obvious winter animals, but one North American variety has overcome its aversion to cold weather by adopting a rather extreme survival strategy: freezing itself alive.

The wood frog, which can be found in cold northern states such as Alaska, is a famously freeze-tolerant creature capable of surviving for weeks on end with 65 per cent of its body frozen solid. During this time, the frog’s body grinds to a halt, with basic functions such as breathing and circulation entering a state
of limbo. When the weather warms up, the wood frog thaws out and continues life as normal, suffering no ill effects.

The trick is made possible thanks to cryoprotectants: chemicals in the frog’s body that prevent cell tissues from shrinking and drying out when exposed to extreme temperatures. Scientists studying wood frogs believe that similar chemicals could be used to freeze human organs for transplantation.

10. Tardigrade
Meet the most resilient animal on Earth They may not look particularly exciting, but tardigrades (also known as water bears or moss piglets) have the distinct honour of being Earth’s most extreme survivors. These microscopic creatures are 0.5 millimetres (0.02 inches) long when fully grown, and can be found in a diverse range of habitats, from the tops of mountains to the deepest depths of the ocean.

With the ability to survive boiling hot and freezing cold temperatures, withstand pressures 6,000-times stronger than the planet’s atmosphere, and survive devastating doses of radiation, the tardigrade is one seriously tough cookie. The tiny critters can even survive in the lifeless vacuum of space – something no other animal has been able to do.

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